عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
At the beginning of the last century, division of labor principle was introduced as a factor for creativity drive, and economical saving, and the requirements of such principles led to hierarchical, task and authority-oriented organizing of different enterprises and organizational levels. This results a shift in goals and tasks of organizations. By Increasing demand and application of automation in order to recompense production task- orientation and customer’s demand as the main goal of organization was marginalized. Although this approach was effective in the period of inadequacy of supply for demand, at the time of abundance of supply for demand and organizations focus on customer’s demand it lost its efficiency so needs another approach, new condition requires this approach to be holistic and result oriented, and whenever and even during the performance of any task, the final product and customer’s pure demand must be pivot of activities. In other words, personnel at every stage should think about serving customers and realize their demands. The new approach was totally different from the task-oriented one and had a process-oriented nature. This transmission from task-orientation to process orientation paradigm is the subject of a research which was conducted in an industrial- productive enterprise via action research approach contracting. This research has developed the process- oriented approach to management system based on process in a way that inheres in itself continuous improvement, whose result would be prescriptive and descriptive. Process orientation, contrary to task orientation that focuses on the way of performing an action, emphasizes the cause of this approach in order to organize all of the organizational elements and resources for realizing the customer’s demands.