Document Type : Research Paper


1 professor, Management faculty of Tehran University

2 Ph.D. Operations Management, (Assistant Professor of TehranUniversity)


Due to the changes in production and market conditions, companies are facing many pressures. One of the ways of confronting with these pressures is the concept of supply chain and increasing its flexibility to satisfy different needs of customers. Despite the importance of supply chain flexibility, lack of appropriate analytical models to explain the relationship between the flexibility in a system and the performance of overall system is still recognized. Therefore, in this study a mathematical model of supply chain flexibility has been presented. This research is applied and of the descriptive research types. This study is done in two phases; dimensions detection and modeling. Identified dimensions in the first phase are labor flexibility, machine flexibility, routing and process flexibility. They are important dimensions for assess each three levels; provide, produce and assemble the entire supply chain. The result of the second phase was the design of a mathematical model for each three levels, separately, but dependent on other levels by objective function. Their limitations are defined by identified dimensions in the first phase.


تیموری، ابراهیم، و احمدی، مهدی(۱۳۸۸).مدیریت زنجیره تأمین.تهران: دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران.
مردمی، کریم، و دلشاد، مهسا (۱۳۸۹). محیط یادگیری انعطاف‌پذیر.نشریه علمی پژوهشی انجمن علمی معماری وشهرسازی ایران، ۱(۱)، ۱۰۹-۱۱۸.
Acar, Y.,&Kadipasaoglu, S. (2011).An Empirical Study of Volume and Storage Flexibility in a Global Supply Chain.The Southwest Decision Sciences Institute Conference, Houston, TX, March 9-12.
Aprile, D., Garavelli, A.C.,&Giannoccaro, I. (2005).Operations planning and flexibility in a supply chain.Production Planning & Control, 16(1),21-31.
 Bertrand, J.W.M. (2003).Supply Chain Design: Flexibility Considerations.Handbooks in Operations Research and Management Science, 11, 133-198.
Blome, C., Schoenherr, T.,& Eckstein, D. (2013).The Impact of Knowledge Transfer and Complexity on Supply Chain Flexibility: A Knowledge-Based View.International Journal ofProduction Economics, Available online, March13.
 Browne, J., Dubois, D., Rathmill, K., Sethi, S.P.,&Stecke, K.E. (1984).Classification of flexible manufacturing systems.Flexible Manufacturing Systems Magazine,2(2),114-117.
 Chan, H.K.,& Chan, F.T.S. (2010).Comparative study of adaptability and flexibility in distributed manufacturing supply chains.Decision Support Systems, 48(2),331-341.
Chandra, C.,&Grabis, J. (2009).Role of flexibility in supply chain design and modeling-Introduction to the special issue.Omega, 37(4),743-745.
Chuu, S-J.(2011).Interactive group decision-making using a fuzzy linguistic approach for evaluating the flexibility in a supply chain.European Journal of Operational Research, 213(1),279-289.
Daihua, G. (2008).Dynamic Supply Chain Flexibility Based on Order Quantity Optimization.International Conference on Logistics Engineering and Supply Chain, China.
Duclos, L.K., Vokurka, R.J.,&Lummus, R.R. (2003).A conceptual model of supply chain flexibility.Industrial Management & Data Systems, 103(6),446-456.
Francas, D., Kremer, M., Minner, S.,&Friese, M. (2009).Strategic process flexibility under lifecycle demand.International Journal of Production Economics, 121(2),427-440.
Garavelli, A.C. (2003).Flexibility configurations for the supply chain management.International Journal of Production Economics,85(2),141-153.
Gong, Z. (2008).An economic evaluation model of supply chain flexibility.European Journal of Operational Research, 184(2),745-758.
Grigore, S.D. (2007).Supply Chain Flexibility.Romanian Economic and Business Review, 2(1), 66-70.
Lummus, R.R., Vokurka, R.J.,&Duclos, L.K. (2005).Delphi study on supply chain flexibility.International Journal of Production Research,43(13),2687–2708.
Moon, K.K.-L., Yi, C.Y.,&Ngai, E.W.T. (2012).An instrument for measuring supply chain flexibility for the textile and clothing companies.European Journal of Operational Research, 222(2), 191-203.
Sánchez, A.M.,& Pérez, M.P. (2005).Supply chain flexibility and firm performance: A conceptual model and empirical study in the automotive industry.International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 25(7), 681-700.

Sokri, A. (2014).Military supply chain flexibility measures.Journal of Modelling in Management,9(1),78-86.

Vokurka, R.J.,& O'Leary-Kelly, S.W. (2000).A review of empirical research on manufacturing flexibility.Journal of Operations Management,18(4),361-385.
Winkler, H., &Seebacher, G. (2012).Considerations on a contemporary flexibility approach. Research in Logistics & Production, 2(2),147-161.